Modeling vs Experimental Evidence

Williams, 1971

Page Number: 
5

Unfortunately, it is unlikely that really decisive evidence for choosing between group selection and kin selection, either in general or even for specific examples, will be forthcoming in the near future. It is difficult to determine the degeree to which non-breeding social grous are made up of close relatives, and almost impossible to measure the cost of altruism to the donor or the benefit to the recipient.

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